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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. The datasets generated for this study are available on reasonable request to the corresponding author. Over the last years, there has been a resurge in the interest to study the relationship between interoception and emotion.

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As an understanding and control of emotions is more relevant for reappraisal than suppression use Hofmann and Kashdan, ; Totzeck et al. Although abnormal activity changes in prefrontal and para- limbic brain regions have been considered as biomarkers for deficits in emotion regulation Ochsner et al.

These analyses yielded similar findings like those that have been obtained in the correlation analyses that used resting state vmHRV-ST measures. Considering the importance of reappraisal and suppression use for mental health Aldao et al. To test whether inter-individual differences in resting state vmHRV-ST were in fact differentially associated with inter-individual differences in self-reported emotion regulation abilities in male and female participants, a series of regression analyses was run see Table 2. Associations between short-term measures of heartrate variability that had been derived from s lasting heartrate recordings and measures of reappraisal and suppression.

According to these findings, inter-individual differences in resting state vmHRV-UT may have been differentially associated with inter-individual ao sex rostock in self-reported emotion regulation abilities in male and female participants see Figure 1.

Taken together, these findings confirmed that there were sex-dependent associations between inter-individual differences in resting state vmHRV-UT and inter-individual differences in emotion regulation abilities. Figure 2.

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Table 4. Ratings of these symptoms have been shown to be associated with formal diagnoses of mental disorders Prinz et al. Moreover, our findings complement findings of other studies indicating that female participants report and show more emotionality than male participants Grossman and Wood, ; Kring and Gordon, ; Bradley et al. Figure 1. Taken together, these findings confirmed that there were sex-dependent associations between inter-individual differences in resting state vmHRV-ST and inter-individual differences in self-reported emotion regulation abilities.

It has already been shown that individuals with high vmHRV have fewer difficulties in emotion regulation than individuals with low HRV Williams et al. Electrocardiologic techniques that allow an indirect assessment of changes in brain activity via changes in cardiac activity may represent a promising alternative to neuroimaging techniques because these techniques do not require dedicated staff or equipment Beauchaine, Whereas changes in cardiac activity can be assessed within a couple of minutes with mobile or stationary devices that do not require extensive training, changes in brain activity can only be assessed over longer time periods with stationary devices that ao sex rostock extensive training.

Across a series of correlation and regression analyses, we ao sex rostock sex-dependent associations between inter-individual differences in resting state vmHRV and inter-individual differences in self-reported reappraisal use but not suppression use: Male participants with high resting state vmHRV reported more reappraisal but similar suppression use than male participants with low resting state vmHRV, indicating an increase in self-reported reappraisal but not suppression use with increasing resting state vmHRV.

Table 3. Using resting state vmHRV-ST measures, a series of correlation analyses was run to explore sex-dependent associations between inter-individual differences in resting state vmHRV-ST and inter-individual differences in self-reported emotion regulation abilities.

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The ability to regulate our emotions, thus, determines the course of our social interactions Gross,which may have positive outcomes after successful emotion regulation and negative outcomes after unsuccessful emotion regulation Butler et al. Of note, the aforementioned associations between inter-individual differences in resting state vmHRV and inter-individual differences in self-reported emotion regulation abilities emerged not only in correlation but also in regression analyses that involved short-term as well as ultra-short term measures of resting state vmHRV, indicating the robustness of our findings.

Although changes in cardiac activity can be measured in several ways, measures related to parasympathic induced changes in heart rate HR that are mediated by the vagus nerve, which are commonly described as vagally-mediated heart rate variability vmHRV; Shaffer and Ginsberg,are of particular ao sex rostock. A series of regression analyses was run to test whether inter-individual differences in resting state vmHRV-UST were in fact differentially associated with inter-individual differences in self-reported emotion regulation abilities see Tables 34. Agreement with these statements has been shown to be associated with the actual use of the respective emotion regulation strategies Szasz et al.

Of these brain regions, prefrontal ones, like, for example, the dorsolateral ao sex rostock ventrolateral prefrontal cortex or the anterior cingulate cortex, and para- limbic ones, like, for example, the amygdala and the insula, appear to be of particular relevance.

Table 2. We only considered Caucasians with an age range of 18—35 years for recruitment, which resulted in the recruitment of participants, 91 male and 85 females see Table 1. As social beings, we interact on a daily basis with other individuals.

However, whether we succeed or fail to regulate our emotions crucially depends on the type of strategy we employ for this type of purpose Gross, Reappraisal is an emotion regulation strategy aimed at changing the meaning of an emotional event antecedent-focused strategywhereas suppression is an emotion regulation strategy aimed at changing the reaction to an emotional event response-focused strategy. We determined resting state vmHRV in a sample of individuals that had also completed a short self-report measure of reappraisal and suppression use. Irrespective of recording length, we found that an increase in resting state vmHRV was associated with an increase in self-reported reappraisal but not suppression use.

Participants were instructed to abstain from alcohol and drugs in the 24 h preceding the testing day. Although these interactions are often rewarding e. Other techniques than neuroimaging ones may be more useful to identify biomarkers for emotion regulation. Associations between ultra-short term measures of heartrate ao sex rostock that had been derived from 60 s ao sex rostock heartrate recordings and measures of reappraisal and suppression use. Unsuccessful emotion regulation may also result in clinical and subclinical levels of stress, anxiety and depression Garnefski et al.

Correspondence between short-term and ultra-short-term measures of heart rate variability.

On the testing day, participants were asked to use the bathroom to control for the effects of bladder filling and gastric digestion on resting state vmHRV Quintana and Heathers, As recently recommended Quintana et al. A series of one-way ANOAVs was run to investigate inter-individual differences in participant characteristics see Table 1. As a study revealed medium sized associations between inter-individual differences in resting state vmHRV and inter-individual differences in self-reports regarding the inability to regulate emotions Williams et al.

In that study, participants with high vmHRV reported fewer difficulties to understand and control emotions than participants with low vmHRV Ao sex rostock et al. Moreover, these associations were not only found in studies that measured inter-individual ao sex rostock in vmHRV during rest Vogele et al. Following established guidelines Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology,the recorded data was artifact corrected and subjected to a time-domain analysis for the determination of the root mean square of successive differences between consecutive heart beats RMSSD.

It may be possible that individuals with high vmHRV experience less stress, anxiety and depression than individuals with low vmHRV because individuals with high vmHRV use more reappraisal and less suppression for emotion regulation than individuals with low vmHRV. We expected that inter-individual differences in resting state vmHRV would be positively associated with inter-individual differences in self-reported reappraisal use and that inter-individual differences in resting state vmHRV would be, if at all, negatively associated with inter-individual differences in self-reported suppression use.

However, imaging studies also revealed that an increase in prefrontal activity and a decrease in para- limbic activity is accompanied by an increase in vmHRV Gianaros et al. Imaging studies revealed that an increase in prefrontal activity and a decrease in para- limbic activity is more likely to occur during reappraisal than suppression use Goldin et al.

Studies that used performance measures, however, revealed similar associations of inter-individual differences in vmHRV with inter-individual ao sex rostock in reappraisal use Butler et al.

Inter-individual differences in vmHRV are associated with inter-individual differences in prefrontal and para- limbic brain activity that are implicated in self-regulatory processes Thayer and Lane, ; Thayer et al.

All predictors, with the exception of sex, were z-transformed to control for multicollinarity Aiken and West, The first block of predictors comprised sex, age, body mass index, psychopathology and resting state vmHRV, whereas the second block of predictors comprised the interaction of sex and resting state vmHRV Aiken and West, ificant interactions between the predictor sex and the predictor resting state vmHRV were investigated with simple slope analyses Aiken and West, Correspondence between the different resting state vmHRV measures was assessed on basis of correlation analyses that comprised bivariate correlations and intra-class correlations ICC: ao sex rostock agreement, ao sex rostock ANOVA; Fleiss et al.

To for deviations from normality distribution, the resting state vmHRV measures were log transformed log 10 before all analyses.

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Precautions were taken to control ao sex rostock inter-individual differences in age, body mass index and psychopathology that may have affected the of the correlation and regression analyses Licht et al. Analyses of variances ANOVAs were run to investigate inter-individual differences in age, body mass index, psychopathology, self-reported emotion regulation abilities and resting state vmHRV.

These studies even showed that an increased coupling of prefrontal and para- limbic brain regions, which is thought to be crucial for successful emotion regulation following reappraisal use Ochsner et al. All participants provided written-informed consent to the study protocol that was approved by the ethics committee of the University of Rostock and carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.

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Although the findings of these studies suggest ao sex rostock inter-individual differences in vmHRV are more associated with inter-individual differences in self-reported reappraisal than self-reported suppression use, it is important to note that both studies relied on self-report measures that lack ecologic validity in comparison to performance measures.

Using resting state vmHRV-UT measures, another series of correlation analyses was run to explore sex-dependent associations between inter-individual differences in resting state vmHRV-UT and inter-individual differences in self-reported emotion regulation abilities. The items described these emotion regulation strategies in terms of statements e. These analyses revealed similar findings like those that have been found in the regression analyses that used resting state vmHRV-ST measures.

Correlation and regression analyses with bootstrapping samples were run to analyze associations between inter-individual differences in resting state vmHRV and inter-individual differences in self-reported reappraisal or suppression use.

Combing ultra- short-term measures of resting state vmHRV with short self-report measures of emotion regulation may, thus, be useful for researchers who have to investigate ao sex rostock neurobiological mechanisms of emotion regulation in a time- and resource-efficient manner. To test these theories, we investigated whether inter-individual differences in vmHRV would be associated with inter-individual differences in emotion regulation. To address this issue, we investigated whether inter-individual differences in vmHRV would be associated with inter-individual differences in reappraisal and suppression use in a large and homogenous sample of participants.

Ao sex rostock differences in vmHRV may, thus, indeed serve as a biomarker for inter-individual differences in emotion regulation Appelhans and Luecken, ; Beauchaine, ; Holzman and Bridgett, Neurobiological theories suggest that inter-individual differences in vagally mediated heart rate variability vmHRV have the potential to serve as a biomarker for inter-individual differences in emotion regulation that are due to inter-individual differences regarding the engagement of prefrontal and para- limbic brain regions during emotion processing.

In the respective regression models, inter-individual differences in age, sex, body mass index, psychopathology and resting state vmHRV were used as predictors and self-reported reappraisal or suppression use as criterion. In the present study, we investigated whether inter-individual differences in resting state vmHRV would be associated with inter-individual differences in self-reported emotion regulation abilities. Methodological aspects regarding the measurement of inter-individual differences in HRV and emotion regulation, thus, do not affect the association between inter-individual differences in vmHRV and inter-individual differences in reappraisal use, implying that this association is remarkably robust.

These findings, which are consistent with ones, support theoretical claims that inter-individual differences in vmHRV serve as a biomarker for inter-individual differences in emotion regulation.

Our findings regarding sex-differences in self-reported emotion regulation abilities are consistent with those of studies revealing more self-reported reappraisal and suppression use in male as compared to female participants Graser et al. However, this association was only evident among male but not female participants, indicating a sex-specific association between inter-individual differences in resting state vmHRV and inter-individual differences in self-reported emotion regulation.

Table 5.

Notwithstanding the role of sex-differences in emotion regulation, it is interesting to note that our findings converge with the findings of a study that investigated the association of inter-individual differences in HRV with inter-individual differences in self-reports regarding the inability rather than ability to regulate emotions Williams et al.

Reappraisal use appears to be more efficient in attenuating emotional distress and physiological arousal than suppression use Gross, ; Butler et al. On basis of these findings, it may be assumed that inter-individual differences in vmHRV reflect inter-individual ao sex rostock in reappraisal use that are mediated by inter-individual differences regarding the inhibition of para- limbic brain regions by prefrontal brain regions.

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Female participants with high and low resting state vmHRV, on the contrary, did not differ in self-reported reappraisal or suppression use, implying that self-reported reappraisal and suppression use did not ao sex rostock or decrease with increasing or decreasing resting state vmHRV.

These findings suggested that inter-individual differences in resting state vmHRV-ST may have been differentially associated with inter-individual differences in self-reported emotion regulation abilities in male and female participants see Figure 1. Whereas correlation analyses were used to explore these associations in male and female participants, regression analyses were used to test whether these associations differed between male and female participants. Whereas in some situations it may be appropriate to show our frustration e.

It remains, however, unclear whether these differences in stress, anxiety and depression are due to differences in reappraisal and suppression use. Inter-individual differences in vmHRV may, therefore, indeed have the potential to work as a biomarker for inter-individual differences in emotion regulation Ao sex rostock and Luecken, ; Beauchaine, ; Holzman and Bridgett, With respect to the neurobiological mechanisms underlying associations between inter-individual differences in resting state vmHRV and inter-individual differences in emotion regulation, it is interesting to note that inter-individual differences regarding the activity and integrity of prefrontal and para- limbic brain regions are associated with inter-individual differences in emotion regulation Ochsner et al.

Each item asked for the severity of anxious, depressive and somatoform symptoms within the last 7 days e. This allowed us to test whether associations between inter-individual differences in resting state vmHRV and inter-individual differences in self-reported reappraisal or suppression use would be invariant across recording conditions, thereby indicating the robustness and stability of these associations.