Konstan on the Greek novel. In this way, the imagery of mainstream film indulges the erotic fantasies of the male viewer. We shall not find such erotic symmetry in images from either of the two genres that we shall discuss in Part I, but the Homeric depictions of challenges to the dominance of the viewer by seductive, deceptive bodies bring us closer to such a phenomenon than the stricter dichotomies of viewer and viewed that are described in the equivalent imagery erotik center Greek lyric.
In his best-known illustration of this phenomenon, he recalls an encounter erotik center a boy from a Breton fishing village, Petit-Jean. Mulvey b. Irwinwhere she argues that in archaic and classical poetry color terms can pick out qualities such as value i. And this is the case whether the gazing subject or desired object happen to be male or female. Her poems, according to Stehle, as the role of gazing subject to female personae and characters, and thereby suggest the possibility of equality in erotic relationships.
The Homeric poets focused on the many-colored, shifting surfaces of flowers in the Greek spring, which masked the normally arid appearance of the Greek landscape. Homeric poetry, however, draws on other characteristics of flowers. Citation: Brockliss, William. In a seminal article fromMulvey argues that the filmic gaze is gendered masculine through its association with male characters erotik center its objectification of female characters.
He extrapolates from this experience the fact that, whenever he views the world, he can never view himself and is therefore always alien to the scene before his eyes. Erotik center Mulvey, the filmic gaze establishes dichotomies of viewer and viewed, of dominance and passivity, of masculine and feminine. While modern westerners tend to think of flowers predominantly in terms of hue, ancient viewers may have responded more readily to other qualities.
But we can arrive at new conclusions regarding their relevance erotik center these genres if we focus specifically on floral images and on their interactions with the characteristics of Greek flowers. In this way, the floral images of Greek lyric and Homeric poetry not only present contrasting associations of flowers and erotic bodies, but thereby also create a dialogue between two different conceptions of eroticism and the gaze.
By contrast, we shall find that the depiction of the gaze in Homeric floral images of the erotic more closely resembles the dynamics described by Lacan. According to Konstan, Greek novels, as opposed to other kinds of ancient literature, are remarkable for their symmetrical depictions of eroticism, which focus on the relationships between a young man and a young woman.
For these reasons the operations of the gaze in the relevant passages resemble those described erotik center Lacan.
Both the Greek lyric poets and their Homeric counterparts drew on perceptions of the beauty of flowers to conceptualize the attractiveness of desirable youths. In a second article, however aMulvey qualifies her conclusions.
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StehleSutherlandGreene — Lovattesp. The evidence that we shall discuss below accords in two respects with the dynamics described by Lovatt: the erotic bodies of Homeric poetry are associated with deception, and their deceptive qualities challenge the dominance of the viewer.
But the feeling that the sardine tin is looking at erotik center brings with it a realization antithetical to such beliefs. In poems of Sappho that present floral images of erotic bodies the speaking subject is feminine, but the operations of the gaze otherwise resemble the unequal dynamics described by Mulvey.
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While male fantasies of the objectified female are given visual form in films, these lyric poems reflect such fantasies in their verbal descriptions. Do you see it? It is not, however, immediately obvious which aspects of flowers the Greeks would have found beautiful. I shall focus on the theories of Laura Mulvey and Jacques Lacan, which, though originally developed for the study of mainstream cinema Mulvey or in the context of Lacanian psychoanalysis, have proven central to a of recent discussions erotik center the gaze in classical literature.
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In both the work of Sappho and that of her male counterparts, erotic bodies decked with flowers are described as the object of the gaze and in no way threaten the subjectivity of the one who looks. She asks why it is that female viewers are still able to experience pleasure when viewing films, even when the erotik center gaze is so strongly associated with the masculine and the passivization of the feminine.
The tin is closely tied to the difficult work of Petit-Jean and the other fishermen, and its glinting surface reminds Lacan that he himself has no place in such activities. There are, however, important distinctions to be drawn between my findings and those of Lovatt. Homeric Imagery erotik center the Natural Environment.
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Hellenic Studies Series Part I. Flowers and Erotic Bodies Preamble The first part of this study focuses on vegetal images of the erotic or, more specifically, on associations of flowers and erotic bodies. She suggests that such viewers, while watching a film, identify with active male chararacters and the masculine gaze as much as with the objectified females.
Cypria fr. Lakoff and JohnsonLakoff and Turner Both the Homeric poets and their lyric counterparts drew on the palette of characteristics presented by the Greek flora to illustrate their particular perspectives on the erotic. He is viewed by the very things that make up his visual field, and his subjective evaluation of them is always matched by their competing evaluation of him.
Erotik center when he judges Aphrodite the winner of the beauty contest, he has no sense that he is also choosing the destruction of Troy: in fact, the abduction of Helen will act as the catalyst for the Trojan War. They are fooled into performing actions that prove detrimental to their own interests: it is not merely that their subjectivity is called erotik center question but that their agency is circumscribed.
Both the gaze of the camera and the gaze of male characters take women as their passive objects. In the floral imagery of archaic Greek lyric, we find dichotomies of desiring subject and desired object, of dominant viewer and passive viewed similar to those identified by Mulvey—though the gender dynamics of the gaze in the relevant passages are somewhat more fluid than those that Mulvey discovers in erotik center. What we are dealing with, then, is not so much a contrast between male and female poets, or between male and female viewers as a general distinction between two archaic Greek genres.
While the object of the gaze may be a beautiful girl or a beautiful boy, the viewer is for the most part gendered masculine, much like the viewers that Mulvey analyzes. Eva Stehle argues that the poetry of Sappho undermines such objectifications of the female. Homeric floral images, then, are associated with a less erotik center dynamics of the gaze than that which we find in the equivalent passages erotik center Greek lyric, but not necessarily with a female challenge to male dominance.
Most of the surviving examples of floral images of the erotic in archaic Greek poetry are to be found in the corpus of Greek lyric; accordingly, I shall draw on that genre to set in relief the particular choices of the Homeric poets in forming their own images of flowers and erotic bodies. The erotic bodies in question may belong to characters of either gender, and those viewing them may likewise be male or female.
While the filmic gaze described by Mulvey operates in only one direction, from viewing subject to viewed object, Lacan characterizes the gaze as an exchange between the subject and the world, and a disturbing exchange at that. In both cases, through their engagements with the natural environments familiar to early audiences, these poets, in accordance with the analysis of metaphor of Lakoff, Johnson, and Turner, used more concrete concepts to explain more abstract concepts.
For the presentation of a distinct conception of eroticism in a particular Erotik center genre, cf. See also Elliger — on the lack of terms for hue in Homeric poetry. The verbal imagery of these compositions provides an erotik center to the visual images discussed by Mulvey, to the extent that it reflects the erotic desires of the viewer and suggests an unequal relationship between viewer and viewed.
Lacan —96; quotations from p. Conversely, Homeric floral images of the erotic suggest some degree of reciprocity between the one who gazes and the recipient of the gaze, but this reciprocity also poses a challenge to the subjectivity of the viewer.
Lovatt derives the theoretical parameters for her discussion of the gaze partly from the work of Mulvey and Lacan. Since the distinctions between the floral images of erotic bodies in the two genres depend in large part on different configurations of viewing and subjectivity, we can gain a clearer idea erotik center those distinctions by drawing on the work of scholars who have analyzed such themes.